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1001頁:B005 消防員的戰術

發布時間:2019-06-04點擊量:191

圖片內容:

我只能說,消防員對煙霧探測器非常認真。

我只能說,消防員真是煙感擁躉.....

雙語版本:

The most basic principle of firefighting is that human life takes precedence over all other concerns.

滅火戰術最基本的原則就是救人第一。

This rule may sound obvious, yet at times it is overlooked—not intentionally, of course!

這是個顯而易見的戰術原則,但有時卻會被忽略,當然不是故意的。

Still, on occasion, certain actions taken during the course of extinguishment can endanger occupants.

有時,滅火行動中采取的某些措施可能會危及建筑物中的其他居民。

Other times, actions that are overlooked can have the same effect.

或者是忘記采取某些措施,同樣會危及生命。

Many of these variables will be discussed in the chapters on engine and ladder company operations.

這些問題我們將在水罐車和云梯車的章節中詳細探討。

Still more will be covered in the chapters dealing with fires in specific occupancies.

更多的細節則在特定類型建筑火災的相關章節中探討。

For the present, a discussion of various principles that support the emphasis placed on human life will point out some of the generalities that apply under almost all circumstances.

本章主要內容就是探討人命關天原則,并概述在大多數場合下均適用的戰術。

Concept 01

概念01

When sufficient personnel are not available to effect both rescue and extinguishment at the same time, rescue must be given priority.

人手不足時,優先救人。

Assume that a single engine company is first to arrive at a working fire on the first floor of a two-story private house.

假設一棟兩層民居的首層發生火災,第一到場為一輛水罐消防車。

The unit is staffed (understaffed) by a driver, an officer, and one firefighter.

車上人員(不足)僅為司機、指揮和一名消防員。

On arrival, an adult female is visible at the second-floor front window. She is shrouded in smoke, screaming hysterically to the firefighters to save her baby.

消防員剛到場就發現二樓前窗處有一名成年女性。她已經被煙氣包圍,正在歇斯底里地呼叫消防員救救她的孩子。

Before the members have even gotten off the apparatus, she and the child slump back into the room, apparently overcome by the heavy smoke that is pouring out of the window over their heads.

還未等消防員下車,窗內噴涌而出的滾滾濃煙就使這名女子失去意識癱倒。

What actions should this unit take while fighting this fire?

下一步該怎么辦?

The answer will depend on the resources that can be brought to bear immediately.

有多種可能,取決于手頭可用資源。

Several options are possible, but with the limited personnel described above—only three firefighters—simultaneous fire suppression and rescue is not an option that will work.

可選項很多,但因為人手如前所述—三名消防員—非常有限,滅火和救人同步展開是不現實的。

In this situation, all three members will be required to perform the rescues.

在這種情況下,三名消防員都要參與救人。

A portable ladder on the pumper provides the fastest, safest, and most direct access to the victims.

放在水泵上的便攜梯是接近被困者最快、最安全也是最直接的途徑。

In addition, unless fire is blowing out directly below the window, this is the only access that doesn’t require hoseline support.

此外,除非窗戶下面有火苗噴涌,這是唯一不需要水槍掩護的途徑。

Removing an adult victim via portable ladder is a very difficult task, requiring at least one person on the ladder and one in the room with the victim.

通過便攜梯解救被困人員是一項非常困難的任務,梯子上和房間里各需要一名消防員。

In addition, you must remove the child.

此外,還有兒童需要救援。

These three firefighters will have their hands full, but it can be done.

這點事兒夠這三人忙活的,但他們可以完成任務。

If the victims survive, the firefighters will have been successful even if the house burns to the ground.

即便大火最終將整棟房子燒毀,只要被困人員存活,這就是一起成功的救援。

In fact, rescue is the only practical alternative. You must at all times learn to put human life above property losses.

事實上,救人是唯一可行的方案,你必須時刻謹記“救人第一”。

Attempting to approach the victims by way of the interior means passing the fire, which means stretching hose lines. If conditions are serious, it may not even be possible to get past the fire and up the stairs at all.

試圖從建筑物內部接近被困人員意味著穿越火線,即需要延伸水帶。如果情況比較糟糕,可能連樓都上不去。

Under the best conditions, even after the fire is knocked down enough for firefighters to ascend the interior staircase, one member will have to remain on the hoseline to protect the escape route while the others each attempt to remove a victim.

即便是最理想狀態,消防員成功打通了一條通道上到二樓,嘗試救援被困人員時只能投入兩人,必須留一名消防員把持水槍以保護撤退路線。

This is a much slower and more dangerous approach.

這樣的分工意味著更慢、更危險。

Due to the limited personnel, the interior approach faces a much greater chance of failure.

由于人手不足,從內部進攻的失敗幾率將會非常大。

Similarly, trying a ladder rescue and simultaneously attacking the fire almost ensures that, with the three-member crew, neither operation will be successful, since there aren’t enough firefighters to perform all of the needed tasks.

受限于僅有三名消防員無法完成所有項目,即便是使用便攜梯從外部救人和滅火同步進行也不會成功。

But it is still an attempt at rescue. The last possible option would be to commit all of the members to a rapid knockdown of the fire, forcing the victims to await rescue by later-arriving personnel.

但這至少在嘗試救人了。最差的選擇就是將所有人力投入滅火行動,寄希望于速戰速決,迫使被困人員等待后續到場人員的營救行動。

This solution is unsatisfactory unless additional personnel are immediately available, since the victims will almost certainly perish before anyone can reach them.

除非后續人員能馬上到場,否則被困人員將會很快死亡。

After 4 minutes without oxygen, the victims are likely to suffer brain damage. Any longer than that, death is nearly certain.

缺氧4分鐘即可造成腦損傷,超過這個時間節點基本等于死亡。

It is important to carefully consider the scenario described above: This is a one-family house, with only two known victims at a specific location, and there are sufficient personnel (three) to perform this very limited task. That is what makes this scenario work.

注意上述場景中的幾個細節:獨棟民居,已知被困人員數量和位置,任務所需人力有限。這是方案成功的關鍵

If the building was larger, and contained more victims, say 8 or 10, or if the victims’ locations were not immediately known (which would require an extensive search), the most important priority would be to try to get the hoseline operating between the fire and the victims.

如果建筑物再大點,有8到10名被困人員,或是位置未知(即需要大范圍搜索),首要的任務就是攔住火勢向被困人員方向發展。

歷史文章:

1001頁:B001消防員的戰術 

1001頁:A003 消防建筑施工 

1001頁:B003 消防員的戰術 

1001頁:A004 消防建筑施工

1001頁:B004消防員的戰術

1001頁:A005 消防建筑施工

來源:52號消防站
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