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1001頁:B006 消防員的戰術

發布時間:2019-06-05點擊量:182

B006 Fire Officers Tactics

圖片內容:

Ever wonder if we take our job a little too seriously?

這么玩是不是有點過了?

雙語:

Put the fire out if you can, but if that is not possible with the personnel at hand, at least protect the means of egress, so that people can escape and rescuers can enter.

盡你所能滅火,如果人手短缺滅不了,那就盡可能保證出入口,這樣里面的人有路可逃,消防員也有內攻的途徑。

This still places rescue as the highest priority; it just uses a different method to conduct it.

殊途同歸,這個方案依舊視救人為最高優先級。

The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) has an old saying that has been proven time and time again—engine members love it, and ladder members (truckies) hate it—but it’s true: More lives have been saved by properly positioned and operated hoselines than by all other means! That is the guiding principle behind the next concept.

紐約消防局有句水罐車組非常喜歡的老話,“正確選擇水槍陣地位置能夠挽救更多生命”,雖然云梯車組對這句話并不怎么認同,但這卻是事實。概念02的指導原則即基于此。

Concept 02

概念02

When you don’t have sufficient personnel to perform all of the needed tasks, first perform those that protect the greatest number of human lives (fig. 1–1).

人手不足時,優先保護大多數。(圖1-1)

Although most firefighters would have a poor opinion of anyone who might suggest that they play God, the fact is that firefighters must occasionally make some hard choices between life and death.

消防員經常需要在火場上決斷生死,這種“扮演上帝”的感覺其實并不好受。

Sometimes conditions are such that people are going to die no matter what actions you take.

有些情況下,無論消防員做什么,都不能避免被困人員死亡。

Although this is surely a stressful, disheartening situation, firefighters must realize that additional lives may hang in the balance, requiring quick action based on rational decisions.

見死不救會造成的巨大壓力和負面情緒,但是消防員必須意識到,可能還有更多的被困者等待救援,快速準確的行動需要不受感性影響的理性決策。

I recall responding to a multiple alarm fire at which two 2?-story wood-frame houses were fully involved on arrival.

我記得以前參與撲救的一場大型火災,兩棟兩層半木框架房屋在我到達現場時已經進入全面燃燒階段。

Fire was already extending to two additional wood-frame houses on the left side of the fire, as well as to a six-story, nonfireproof apartment building on the right.

著火建筑左邊兩棟同類建筑已經被波及,右邊一棟六層無防火措施的公寓樓也受到了火勢的影響。

All five buildings were fully occupied, and coupled with the lateness of the hour, all presented high life hazards.

五棟建筑都住滿了人,火災發生時間又是深夜,樓內住戶危在旦夕。

The first engine and ladder to arrive, both staffed by an officer and five firefighters, faced a difficult decision—where to operate first.

第一到場是一輛水罐車和一輛云梯車,每車都有一名指揮和五名消防員,他們面臨一個艱難的抉擇—先救哪邊?

The two frame exposures were definitely a great hazard, but so was the apartment house.

左邊受到火勢波及的木框架房屋肯定很危險,但右邊的公寓房也不安全。

The decision was made to concentrate on protecting that building, since it was home to 45 or 50 families.

最后指揮員決定優先保護右邊的公寓樓,因為那棟樓里有40-50戶人家。

The two frame exposures received attention next, with a single outside line used in a holding action.

然后才輪到那兩棟木結構,在建筑外部布置了一組支線防御火勢侵襲。

Although the four families in these two buildings were severely threatened, the possible loss of more than 150 or 160 people in the apartment building far outweighed their possible loss.

雖然左邊木結構房屋里的四戶人家險些喪命,但相比公寓樓內的150-160人的安全來說,還可以接受吧。

The occupants of the two original fire buildings received the lowest priority, since the buildings were solid flame from cellar to ridgepole.

由于火勢已經穿頂,兩棟著火建筑獲得的關注度最低。

The word savable should be used in discussions of life hazards. A person in a room that is filled with fire isn’t savable.

在討論生命受到威脅程度的時候可以用“有救”這個詞,火勢已經充分發展的房間里的人是“沒救”的。

In recent years, there has been a good deal of emphasis on survivability profiling of buildings, in an attempt to reduce the amount of risk that firefighters engage in at structure fires and ultimately to reduce the number of needless firefighter fatalities.

近年來,為了降低消防員在建筑火災中遭遇的風險并最終減少不必要的火場殉職,消防員在建筑物內的生存可能性分析獲得了高度重視。

After all, human life takes precedence over all other concerns, and that includes firefighters’ lives.

畢竟,人命關天,也包括消防員的命。

This issue is extremely complicated and not easy to put in a one-line guide, beyond the fact that a person in a room that is filled with fire isn’t savable.

這一課題的復雜程度超乎想象,一兩句話可說不清楚。

That does not mean that a person in a heavily involved building is not savable.

火勢很大并不意味著被困者一定不可救。

It depends on where the person is in relation to the fire.

還取決于人和火之間的相對狀態。

I have seen numerous people survive in heavily involved buildings, saved by such things as a closed door between them and the fire, or an open window in the room they are in (fig. 1–2).

有時是人與火之間的一扇門,有時是房間里一扇窗,都可以幫助被困人員成功獲救。(圖1-2)

Fig. 1–2. At first glance, it might seem that there was no chance of survivors in this apparently fully involved structure.

1-2 乍一看,這種火勢已經充分發展的火場可能不會有幸存者。

Given advances in the treatment of smoke inhalation, particularly the use hydrogen cyanide antidotes and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, it is important that we don’t write off civilians too early.

有鑒于吸入煙氣治療方法的發展,特別是氰化氫解毒劑和高壓氧倉療法的普及,我們不要急著下結論。

There is a huge difference between “smoked” and “roasted.” In my book, they are not beyond attempting to reach unless they are “roasted.”

“煙熏”和“炙烤”的區別還是很大的,在我的概念里,除非已經處于“炙烤”狀態,否則被困者都還有的救。

If they are in a room full of flame, they are dead. If they are in a room with smoke, even the heaviest smoke, they may be savable (fig. 1–3).

房間里全是火妥妥的必死無疑,但如果只是煙,哪怕煙氣很濃,被困者可能還是有救的。

Fig. 1–3. Examination of the rear of the building, however, showed that there were several rooms with closed doors that offered shelter to the trapped occupants. Several children were in fact removed alive from this home. Do not get so enamored with survivability profiling as to write people off without giving them a chance.

1-3 通過搜索建筑物后部發現,數個房門緊閉的房間為住戶提供了庇護,幾名小孩成功獲救。所以,不要急于下結論,給被困者生存的機會。

It will be your call.

這取決于你。

往期文章:

1001頁:B001消防員的戰術
1001頁:A003 消防建筑施工
1001頁:B003 消防員的戰術
1001頁:A004 消防建筑施工
1001頁:B004消防員的戰術
1001頁:A005 消防建筑施工
1001頁:B005 消防員的戰術

1001頁:A006 消防建筑施工

來源:52號消防站
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